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The New People's Army or NPA is a far-left armed group operating in the Philippines. It has been conducting small-scale attacks against the Philippines since 1971. It follows the Maoist philosophy of a "People's War", aiming to gain the support of the local rural populace and lure the enemy deep into the countryside. The NPA is currently designated as a terrorist group by the Philippines. It frequently raids locations, whether military or civilian, as a "show of power" to the Philippines. It is also involved in a small-scale guerrilla war with the country.

According to the latest PCAF estimates, the dense forests and uncharted lands of central Samar remain the stronghold of the NPA, who the local people have pledged their allegiance due to low standard of living. Most NPA supporters are concentrated in the mountainous or jungle regions of the Philippines, who either fight for the NPA or support them through money or produce.

The NPA is "growing at an alarming rate" and is also suspected to be conducting attacks in Borneo. Estimated number of fighters is 12,000, although that number could be higher or lower. The NPA is also rumored to possess little numbers of Filipino military equipment through raids.